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高中英语动词时态语态知识点详解

时间:2019-03-25 16:02来源: 作者: 点击:
汉语的时态大多是通过副词来表达的,而高中英语的时态是靠动词的变化和时间状语来表达的。高中英语中的时态共有十六种,但是常考的或较常用的只有9种,而且重点测试完成时态。要掌握英语的时态和语态,必须掌握好高

  汉语的时态大多是通过副词来表达的,而高中英语的时态是靠动词的变化和时间状语来表达的。高中英语中的时态共有十六种,但是常考的或较常用的只有9种,而且重点测试完成时态。要掌握英语的时态和语态,必须掌握好高中英语中的助动词(do, be, have)和时间状语这两个核心问题。

  一般现在时

  主要用来表示人、事物的现在状况和特点;表示经常或习惯性的动作,句子中常有often, always, from time to time 等时间状语;  表示客观规律和永恒真理等。

  例句:

  He usually goes to work at 7 o’clock every morning.

  She has a brother who lives in New York.

  The earth goes around the sun.

  Guangzhou is situated in the south of China.

  考点一:表示永恒的真理,即使出现在过去的语境中,仍用一般现在时。

  I learned that the earth goes around the sun when I was in  primary

  school.

  考点二:在时间和条件状语从句中,代替一般将来时;常用的引导词有:

  时间:when, until, after, before, as soon as, once, the moment/

  the minute, the day;

  条件:if, unless, provided.

  If he accepts the job, he will get  more money soon.

  考点三:在make sure (certain), see to it, mind, care, matter+宾语从句中,从句用一般现在时代替一般将来时。

  So long as he works hard, I don’t mind when he  finishes the experiment.

  只要他努力工作,我不介意他什么时候做完试验。

  考点四:在the more… the more… (越……越……) 的句型中, 若主句是一般将来时, 从句通常用一般现在时。

  The harder you study, the better results you will get.

  现在进行时

  表说话时或目前一段时间内正在进行的活动:表感情色彩,加强语气。与频率副词,如always,constantly,continually,again等连用表示说话人的某种感情色彩(赞叹、厌烦、埋怨等)。

  例句:

  We are having English class.

  The house is being  built these days.

  The little boy is always making  trouble.

  考点一:在时间状语或条件状语从句中表示将来正在进行的动作。

  Look out when you are crossing the street.

  Don't wake him up  if he is still sleeping at 7 tomorrow morning.

  考点二:  表示在最近按计划或安排要进行的动作(这时多有表示将来的时间状语)。

  Marry is leaving on Friday.

  现在完成时

  表示动作发生在过去,完成在过去,但强调与现在情况仍有联系,其结果或影响仍存在。

  现在完成时有一些标志性的时间状语

  考点一:for + 时间段;since + 时间点

  They have lived in Beijing for five years.

  They  have lived in Beijing since 1995.

  I have learned English for ten  years.

  考点二:常见的不确定的时间状语:lately; recently, just, already, yet,up to now; till now; so  far, these days,

  Has it stopped raining yet ?

  考点三:在表示“最近几世纪/ 年/ 月以来……”时间状语中,谓语动词用现在完成时。

  in the past few years/months/weeks/days;over the past few years; during the last three months; for the  last few centuries, through centuries; throughout history 等

  考点四:表示“第几次做某事,”或在 “It is the best (worst, most interesting ) +名词+that” 后面跟现在完成时。

  This is my first time that I have visited China.

  This is the most interesting film I have ever seen.

  That is the only book that he has written.

  一般过去时

  表在过去某个特定时间发生且完成的动作,或过去习惯性动作,不强调对现在的影响,只说明过去。常跟明确的过去时间连用,

  如:yesterday; last week; in 1945, at that time; once; during the  war;

  before; a few days ago; when

  考点一:used to + do,表示过去经常但现在已不再维持的习惯动作。

  to为不定式,后接动词原形。

  be/become/get used to + doing,表示习惯于。

  He used to smoke a lot.

  He has got used to getting up  early.

  考点二:在时间和条件状语从句中,代替过去将来时。

  He promised to buy me a computer if he got a raise.

  过去进行时

  表示过去某个时间点或某段时间内正在发生的动作。

  例句:

  The boy was doing his homework when his father came back from

  work.

  He was taking a walk leisurely by the lake when he heard someone

  shouted for help.

  What were you doing at nine last  night?

  The radio was being repaired when you called me.

  过去完成时
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